Blacks that went against the Establishment, rose to the occasion, went above and Beyo

pennywhine

Registered User
Before Rosa Parks.....There was another, Celebrate Her

Allow me to Introduce you to the Lady who Preceeded Rosa Parks and is rarely talked about....ELIZABETH JENNINGS GRAHAM—LOWER MANHATTAN’S ROSA PARKS.....1854

On a hot July morning in 1854, Elizabeth Jennings (still just Jennings, before her marriage to Charles Graham) and her friend, Sarah Adams, ran to catch the horse-drawn streetcar at Pearl Street and Chatham Square. The two were late for services at the First Colored Congregational Church, where Jennings was the organist. With no time to wait for a designated car displaying a large “Colored Persons Allowed” placard in its rear window, the young women boldly climbed aboard a Third Avenue Railroad Company streetcar, with any such sign noticeably absent. As Jennings firmly held her organ music in one hand and her hat in place with the other, she stepped across a threshold into a little-known piece of Lower Manhattan’s history and America’s journey towards civil rights.

What happened next was recorded in Horace’s Greeley’s New York Tribune as such:
“The conductor undertook to get her off, first alleging the car was full; when that shown to be false, he pretended the other passengers were displeased at her presence; but (when) she insisted on her rights, he took hold of her to expel her. She resisted. The conductor got her down on the platform, jammed her bonnet, soiled her dress and injured her person.”

Jennings filled in the details in a letter that was read aloud the next day at a rally on her behalf at the Congregational Church.

“I told him not to lay his hands on me; he took hold of me and I took hold of the window sash and held on; he pulled me until he broke my grasp and I took hold of his coat and held onto that (but previously he had dragged my companion out, she all the while screaming for him to let go).” “. . .The conductor said, ‘You shall sweat for this;’ then told the driver to drive as fast as he could and not to take another passenger in the car; to drive until he saw an officer or a Station House.”

The Tribune article ends, “Finally, after the car had gone on further, with the aid of a policeman, they succeeded in removing her.”

Jennings’ physical prowess was surpassed only by her tenacity for justice. With financial assistance and support from her family and an outraged African American community, she filed a lawsuit against the driver, the conductor and the Third Avenue Railroad Company in Brooklyn. Thomas Jennings, a successful businessman and tireless abolitionist, hired the white law firm of Culver, Parker and Arthur to represent his daughter.

The 24-year-old junior partner, Chester A. Arthur, was handed “Jennings •• Third Avenue Railroad Company” as one of his first cases. Of course, Jennings had no way of knowing that she was being represented by the future 21st President of the United States. Against prevailing opinion, an all-white male jury remarkably ruled in her favor and awarded Jennings $250 in damages. She had asked for $500, but according to the Tribune, “Some jury members had peculiar notions as to colored people’s rights.”

The next day, the Third Avenue Railroad Company directed its drivers to allow African Americans on all of its cars. By 1861, all public transit in New York City had been desegregated.

One hundred years later, an African American woman sitting on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, defied the driver’s order to give up her seat to a white passenger. In the spirit of Elizabeth Jennings, Rosa Parks stood her ground, no longer willing to accept less than equality.

And now, high on a pole at the corner of Park Row and Spruce, across the street from City Hall Park, rests a partially obstructed street sign which reads “Elizabeth Jennings Place.”

It wasn’t until 2007, after a group of 3rd and 4th grade students from P.S.361 on the Lower East Side took up the cause, that the sign honoring Elizabeth Jennings was authorized. Without fanfare or even quiet recognition, it now proudly oversees the bus stop below, as people—people of all colors—board their buses.
elizabeth graham.jpe Mrs Elizabeth Jennings Graham.jpe Elizabeth Jennings Graham.jpe
 

socapineman

JA Soca Ambassador
Before Rosa Parks.....There was another, Celebrate Her

Allow me to Introduce you to the Lady who Preceeded Rosa Parks and is rarely talked about....ELIZABETH JENNINGS GRAHAM—LOWER MANHATTAN’S ROSA PARKS.....1854

On a hot July morning in 1854, Elizabeth Jennings (still just Jennings, before her marriage to Charles Graham) and her friend, Sarah Adams, ran to catch the horse-drawn streetcar at Pearl Street and Chatham Square. The two were late for services at the First Colored Congregational Church, where Jennings was the organist. With no time to wait for a designated car displaying a large “Colored Persons Allowed” placard in its rear window, the young women boldly climbed aboard a Third Avenue Railroad Company streetcar, with any such sign noticeably absent. As Jennings firmly held her organ music in one hand and her hat in place with the other, she stepped across a threshold into a little-known piece of Lower Manhattan’s history and America’s journey towards civil rights.

What happened next was recorded in Horace’s Greeley’s New York Tribune as such:
“The conductor undertook to get her off, first alleging the car was full; when that shown to be false, he pretended the other passengers were displeased at her presence; but (when) she insisted on her rights, he took hold of her to expel her. She resisted. The conductor got her down on the platform, jammed her bonnet, soiled her dress and injured her person.”

Jennings filled in the details in a letter that was read aloud the next day at a rally on her behalf at the Congregational Church.

“I told him not to lay his hands on me; he took hold of me and I took hold of the window sash and held on; he pulled me until he broke my grasp and I took hold of his coat and held onto that (but previously he had dragged my companion out, she all the while screaming for him to let go).” “. . .The conductor said, ‘You shall sweat for this;’ then told the driver to drive as fast as he could and not to take another passenger in the car; to drive until he saw an officer or a Station House.”

The Tribune article ends, “Finally, after the car had gone on further, with the aid of a policeman, they succeeded in removing her.”

Jennings’ physical prowess was surpassed only by her tenacity for justice. With financial assistance and support from her family and an outraged African American community, she filed a lawsuit against the driver, the conductor and the Third Avenue Railroad Company in Brooklyn. Thomas Jennings, a successful businessman and tireless abolitionist, hired the white law firm of Culver, Parker and Arthur to represent his daughter.

The 24-year-old junior partner, Chester A. Arthur, was handed “Jennings •• Third Avenue Railroad Company” as one of his first cases. Of course, Jennings had no way of knowing that she was being represented by the future 21st President of the United States. Against prevailing opinion, an all-white male jury remarkably ruled in her favor and awarded Jennings $250 in damages. She had asked for $500, but according to the Tribune, “Some jury members had peculiar notions as to colored people’s rights.”

The next day, the Third Avenue Railroad Company directed its drivers to allow African Americans on all of its cars. By 1861, all public transit in New York City had been desegregated.

One hundred years later, an African American woman sitting on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, defied the driver’s order to give up her seat to a white passenger. In the spirit of Elizabeth Jennings, Rosa Parks stood her ground, no longer willing to accept less than equality.

And now, high on a pole at the corner of Park Row and Spruce, across the street from City Hall Park, rests a partially obstructed street sign which reads “Elizabeth Jennings Place.”

It wasn’t until 2007, after a group of 3rd and 4th grade students from P.S.361 on the Lower East Side took up the cause, that the sign honoring Elizabeth Jennings was authorized. Without fanfare or even quiet recognition, it now proudly oversees the bus stop below, as people—people of all colors—board their buses.
View attachment 68162 View attachment 68163 View attachment 68164
Penny,

Thanks for pointing that out, never heard of that story. .......very interesting, looking into now.


Thanks again
 

pennywhine

Registered User
Thu, 1873-02-13
*On this date in 1873, Emmett J. Scott was born. He was an African American author and administrator.

From Houston, TX, he briefly attended Wiley College in Marshall, TX before starting to work as a journalist for the Houston Post in 1891. He was awarded a honorary M.A. from Wiley College in 1901. In 1894, he started his own weekly newspaper the Houston Freeman and soon after became the personal secretary for Booker T. Washington. From this position, Scott was elected secretary of Tuskegee Institute in 1912. He became widely recognized as the leader of what was to later be known as the “Tuskegee Machine,” the group of people close to Booker T. Washington who wielded influence over the Black press, churches, and schools in order to promote Washington’s views.

After Washington’s death, Scott became a special assistant to the U.S. secretary of war in charge of Negro affairs at the start of World War I. This was at a time when race relations in the military were an issue of debate and it was here where Scott became a liaison between Black soldiers and the War Department. For twenty years from 1919, he held positions as secretary, treasurer, or business manager at Howard University. Emmett Scott died in 1957.

Reference:
The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage
by Susan Altman
Copyright 1997, Facts on File, Inc. New York
ISBN 0-8160-3289-0

EmmetJScott.jpg EmmetJScottnBookerTWashington.jpg
 

socapineman

JA Soca Ambassador
Dr. Charles Drew

Blood Bank Inventor






It's impossible to determine how many hundreds of thousands of people would have lost their lives without the contributions of African-American inventor Dr. Charles Drew. This physician, researcher and surgeon revolutionized the understanding of blood plasma – leading to the invention of blood banks.

Born in 1904 in Washington, D.C., Charles Drew excelled from early on in both intellectual and athletic pursuits. After becoming a doctor and working as a college instructor, Drew went to Columbia University to do his Ph.D. on blood storage. He completed a thesis titled Banked Blood that invented a method of separating and storing plasma, allowing it to be dehydrated for later use. It was the first time Columbia awarded a doctorate to an African-American.

At the onset of World War II, Drew was called upon to put his techniques into practice. He emerged as the leading authority on mass transfusion and processing methods, and went on to helm the American Red Cross blood bank. When the Armed Forces ordered that only Caucasian blood be given to soldiers, Drew protested and resigned.


For more information on Dr. Charles Richard Drew, refer to:

American Red Cross Museum – Dr. Charles Drew
Who Made America? Innovators: Charles Richard Drew
Engines of Our Ingenuity: Charles Richard Drew
 

pennywhine

Registered User
turbo tax has been running commercials lately about their tax software, with the tagline, "it doesn't take a genius to do your taxes."

to underscore this claim, they use guys in the commercials represented to be "brainiacs".

one of them was dr. s. james gates, jr.



i had no idea who he was until that commercial, so i googled him.

"Sylvester James Gates, Jr. (born December 15, 1950), known as S. James Gates, Jr, or Jim Gates, is an American theoretical physicist, known for work on supersymmetry, supergravity, and superstring theory.

Gates received BS (1973) and PhD (1977) degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His doctoral thesis was the first at MIT on supersymmetry.

Gates was a Martin Luther King Jr. Visiting Scholar at MIT (2010-11) and was a Residential Scholar at MIT's Simmons Hall. He is pursuing ongoing research into string theory, supersymmetry, and supergravity at the MIT Center for Theoretical Physics."

(he's one of president obama's advisors on science and technology)

here's a link to the commercial: https://•••.youtube.com/watch?v=zbyLFql8qKM. the way he says, "yay, you got it" is hilarious.

to put him in perspective, leonardo da vinci, galileo, albert einstein, stephen hawking were/are theoretical physicists.

no disrespect to dr. sheldon cooper, who is also a notable theoretical physicist.

dr. james....RESPECT, dude...damn.

just sharing info about a notable brutha who seems to be flying under the cultural radar.drsylvesterJamesGatesjr.jpe jamesGatesJr.jpe syljamesgatesJr.jpe
 

socapineman

JA Soca Ambassador
Blacks on Wall St that Paved the Way for a lot of US !



Clarence B. Jones






Joseph L. Searles III






Feb. 12, 1970, was a historic day on Wall Street. For the first time in the 178-year history of the New York Stock Exchange, a black man joined the trading community on the exchange floor.


Joseph L. Searles III, the Newburger, Loeb & Co. partner who achieved this milestone, took a meandering route to the Street. He had been a professional football player for the New York Giants and later made a name for himself in politics as an aide to New York City Mayor John Lindsay. But Searles's experience in finance was extremely limited.

The New York Times article announcing his proposed membership on Jan. 31, 1970, read, "The poised and assured Mr. Searles said that he had never owned any stocks or bonds and that his modest stake in the Newburger, Loeb partnership represented his first investment."




Although Searles was the first black trader on the exchange's floor, he was technically not its first black member. That distinction goes to Clarence B. Jones -- counsel and speechwriter to Martin Luther King Jr. -- who became an allied member of the exchange in 1967 when he was named a partner at Carter, Berlind & Weill Inc. As an allied member, Jones had voting stock in a member firm, but he didn't have floor access.

Searles was building on Jones's momentum, which was propelled by the 1964 enactment of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, religion or national origin. Viewed through most of its history as a private club for white males, the stock exchange had a culture that was in a transition mode of sorts, after having admitted its first female member, Muriel Siebert, less than three years before he joined the trading community.

Contemporary accounts indicate that Searles's interest in the financial markets may have been more about breaking through the color barrier on Wall Street than about a professional ambition to enter the world of finance.

"It's a personal challenge to me as a black man to become part of the economic mainstream of this country," he told the New York Times. "I don't believe I'll become a token black. I think there will be more black members at the exchange. Hopefully, my presence will increase the credibility of the financial community, as far as blacks are concerned."

Searles gave up his seat in November 1970, less than a year after he started. According to a New York Times article in March 1971, his speedy exit was prompted not by social concerns but by the poor economic conditions of the time. "The big dividing line, he came to feel, was not skin color, but money," the article said.

After leaving the exchange, Searles went on to work at Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. and later pursued community-business initiatives in Harlem, New York.

But Searles's time at the exchange had a lasting effect. During the next few years, there was a steady increase in black Americans in financial services, including the entrance of the first two black-owned member firms on the exchange in 1971: Daniels & Bell Inc. and First Harlem Securities.

According to Gregory S. Bell, the author of "In the Black: A History of African Americans on Wall Street" (and the son of Daniels & Bell founder Travers Bell), all of the early black-owned financial firms were small, with no more than 20 employees and a few hundred thousand dollars in capital. "If stripped of social significance," Bell wrote, "the Street's first NYSE black firms barely registered on the map."

The presence of these firms, however, signaled a turning point, as financial services became a viable employment option for black men and women.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that in 2010, about 9.8 percent of those employed in business and financial operations and 11.6 percent of all financial analysts were black. (The report indicates that blacks make up 10.8 percent of the entire U.S. workforce.)

Yet black involvement in the financial industry hasn't yet translated to representation in senior positions at financial firms, where there remains a disparity: Blacks make up just 2.8 percent of senior-level management positions in financial services.

"The lack of diversity in the securities industry is particularly acute," said Securities and Exchange Commissioner Luis A. Aguilar in an April 2011 speech. "Clearly, the industry must do substantially better."

(Kristin Aguilera is the deputy director of the Museum of American Finance and the editor of Financial History magazine. The opinions expressed are her own.)

To read more from Echoes, Bloomberg View's economic history blog, click here.
 

pennywhine

Registered User
Wed, 1955-03-02
*On this date in 1955, 15-year-old Black teenager Claudette Colvin was arrested for refusing to move out of her seat for a white woman on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

She was violating the same segregation law that Rosa Parks ran into on nine months later. Colvin was the first person to plead not guilty to such a charge. Her attorney, Fred Gray, raised constitutional issues in her defense but she was convicted.

Reference:
Wikimedia Foundation
204 37th Avenue North Suite330
St. Petersburg, FL. 33704claudettecolvin1.jpeclaudettecolvin.jpeclaudettecolvin2.jpe
 

pennywhine

Registered User
The little unknown truth about this brave little sister is that she was pregnant at the time and the Movement did not think she was a positive representation of the struggle....
 
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